Theories of Motivation
If you really want to know about the Theories of Motivation, you need to read the complete post. It is difficult to explain behavior by motivation. However, behavior is driven when it is deliberately wanted and when it holds a certain meaning or purpose. Motivation is a psychological progression that results in the initiation, tracking, and maintenance of human behavior. It is therefore based on two fundamental postulates:
· An individual is free to select what to do and what not to do.
· His actions are always directed towards a goal, whether he is conscious or not.
Theories of Motivation
Motivation is explained by many authors belonging to various schools of thought and diverse disciplines. Some authors distinguish motivation to be an internal factor predisposing one to accomplish particular actions. In contrast, another group of authors considers it to be a response to an external factor to given stimuli. Authors such as Vallerand and Thill defined motivation as “a hypothetical construct which is used for explaining internal as well as external forces producing the onset, intensity, direction as well as persistency of behavior.” On the other side, Pintrich and Schunk explain this concept in terms of “the procedure through which certain activities are initiated and maintained.”
Additionally, Maslow and Herzberg state that “Motivation is rendered to be those forces which act on or within a person to push them to behave in a specific, goal-oriented manner” (Louart, 2002). Gagnon and Brunel offer a summary definition of these different authors: “motivation tends to arise as an explanation to an action, a dynamic force, the source of energy which pushes and predisposes an individual to act and aim over an objective. The role of motivation is not limited to the triggering of an action. Still, it also influences its intensity, direction and persistency” (Gagnon & Brunel, 2017). Rolland Viau, for his part, understands motivation from a different perspective. Indeed, for this author, “motivation is a dynamic concept which roots its origins over a perception that an [individual] has of himself and his environment which tends to encourage him to select an activity, to do it. Engage and persevere in its accomplishment in order to achieve a goal” (Huart, 2001). This last dimension integrates the individual as such in his perception of controlling certain parameters specific to him. This viewpoint that we adopt; it is understood that the individual is in a particular context (work, school, etc.) and that he has the capacity to act within this framework.
Some major theories of motivation that are need-based include: