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Frederick Irving Herzberg was an American psychologist. He became one of the most prominent names in business management. He presented two factor theory of management. Many people call it motivation theory.

The Two Factor theory indicates that there are certain motivating factors. Which cause job satisfaction as well as motivation along with other factors. These are related to hygiene factors which can result in dissatisfaction. This also means that feelings are not opposed to each other as it was previously a belief of the person. Motivating factors, on one side, relates to job satisfaction. The motivation is based upon the individual’s need for personal development. On the other side, hygiene factors include working conditions, salary, safety, and security as well as the work environment. Certainly, it can result in dissatisfied and unhappy individuals at the workplace (Mullins, 2007).



The biggest advantage of their two factor theory is that it emphasizes moreover motivation that comes from within the employees instead of focusing over external factors. Moreover, organizations who consider that giving salary is enough for satisfying the employees, using this theory makes them realize that reducing those factors that dissatisfy employees is equally important. In this theory, money is treated as a secondary element as factors such as recognition, promotion, and the relationship between the employees are rendered to be motivational factors in place of money.



The biggest disadvantage of the two factor theory is that it may not be necessary that a satisfied employee can bring the result in increased productivity which can be a major disadvantage for the organization. Additionally, different people tend to have different perceptive when the question is of job satisfaction and that younger people may have a differing perception than that of older people (Salanova and Kirmanen, 2010).


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Process Theory

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